"Speak same!"

Lesson 6

You have learned a lot about nouns and noun possession. You also leaned about the pronominal prefix that is used in noun possession. In this lesson we are going to learn about pronouns themselves.


A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun (or noun phrase), such as, in English, the words 'it' (substituting for the name of a certain object) and 'he' (substituting for the name of a person). The replaced noun is called the antecedent of the pronoun.
For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil". All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the reader can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous.
Other examples include: "he," "which," "none," and "you". Pronouns are classified into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.

So, enough with the grammar lesson. Let us see what are the equivalent pronouns used in our language.

Just like nouns, pronouns and demonstrative pronouns have gender, animate and inanimate.

There are two situations when a pronoun must be used.

  i. In sentences such as:

keen numanit8m → 'You (are) my Creator'
neen keetôp → 'I (am) your friend'

The predicate (my Creator, your friend) is a noun instead of a verb.

  ii. When one answers a question such as:

howan ussewup? → 'Who did it?'

The answer, 'neen', 'Me, I'. In verbal sentences where the subject and object are clearly marked, these pronouns are primarily used for emphasis.

Demonstrative pronouns are used in much the same way that English demonstratives are used.

Below is a list of the types of pronouns and demonstratives and their shapes.

Personal Pronouns

neen, nen      'I'
keen, ken      'you'
ewo            'her,him' (where 'ewo' follows a verb and 'neen/keen' precedes it)
neenawun       'we (ex.)'
keenawun       'we (inc.)'
keenau         'you (pl.)'
nag, nagumau   'them'

Reflexive Pronouns

nuhak,         'myself
kuhak,         'yourself
noh, wuhakah   'her/himself

Inanimate Demonstratives and Interrogatives

anama          'this'
yeu, y8        'this'
yeush, y8sh,   'these'
ne, nee,       'that'    (usually written as one word with the following noun)
nish,  neesh,  'those'
toh, tah, tea  'what'
uttiyeu, uttiyeush(pl), tanyeu    'which'?

Animate Demonstratives and Interrogative

yoh           'this'
yeug          'these'
noh           'that'
neg           'those'
uneeh, neh    'that, those (obv.)'
howán (sg)    'who, someone, anyone'
howanik (pl)  'who, someone, anyone'
teag (sg)     'something, anything, what?'
chaquanish (pl)	'something, anything, what?'

	howán ewo → 'who is he?' howanik uchick → 'who are these people?'
	teaqun → 'what (is) this thing?' tahena → 'what is it called?'


túckiu, tunnoh (narr)	'where'?


nawhutchee              'some'
monaog                  'many'
tohsuog/tohsunash       'how many' [people/things]
onkatog onkatogash(pl)  'other', 'another'
ogkosoowog              'few'


wame wau(pl)  'all'
pausuck       'one' (a unique singular entity)


A number. e.g nquit	'one'
paushe       '(it is) half'
missesu      '(it is) whole'
maunawak     'there are many (animate)'
maunetash    'there are many (inanimate)'
tashe        'many, so many, how many?'


tashsuak (pl)(animate)/tashinash (inanimate) → 'how many?'
tashuckqunne → 'how long?'

Degrees of Comparison

anue, wonk        'again, more'
nano, wonkatak    'more and more'
m8cheke           'much'
peesik            'small'

Here are some more nouns for you to use.

NI: ahkee → 'land, earth'NI: kesuk(-qu) → 'day'NI: uppôhquôs -> 'tent'
NA(pl): auwaak → 'people'NA: ahtuk(-qu) → 'deer'NA: wuskuhwhunan(-á) -> 'dove'

Now try to use your new-found skills. Write out these nouns with the appropriate pronoun to translate the following English words into our language. Say the words out loud to gain more confidence in speaking.

This day. (which means 'today')
Those people.
This tent.
How many deer?
Which land?
There are many doves.

Answer this question where the question is directed at you and your group by a stranger. 
You did the action. 
Answer both for yourself and for your group: Who caught these fish?

This time answer as if was one of your group did the action. 
Again answer for yourself and for the group.   Who made a fire?

I killed your enemy! Who killed your enemy?

They are bringing food. Who is bringing food?

The stranger asks "Where is my wetu?" you point to it and say 't....'.

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